For the Titus phase, Thurmond recognized three types/sizes of settlements: limited use areas, small settlements, and large settlements.
The limited use areas are places that were used only in certain seasons for short-term stays such as camps for hunting, nut-gathering, and salt-making.
Large, thin chipped-stone knives like these are found in Titus phase burials thought to be those of high-status adult males.These examples are from looted burials in the Big Cypress Creek drainage.Instead they had small mounds that capped burned and ritually dismantled structures functionally equivalent to those found on the platform (temple) mounds at the larger centers.At the bottom of the social ladder were small but widely distributed rural communities made up of many farmsteads and hamlets often spread out along smaller streams and across productive upland areas.In general, Late Caddo societies seem to have had a three-tier social/political hierarchy.
At the top were civic-ritual centers that had platform (temple) mounds, burial mounds, and presumably the residences of principal leaders (caddis as well as the xinesi and lesser priests).
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Three circular houses were uncovered on one side of a small plaza. Titus phase pottery from cemetery at the Russell site. The University of Texas excavated this site in 1931 and documented 64 graves.
On the opposite side was a "special building" with an extended entranceway and supports for interior benches. The red Avery Engraved bowl in the middle is probably a trade piece from the Mc Curtain phase area in the Red River Valley to the north. Note the consistent east-west grave orientation and the fact that the graves do not intrude into one another.
In contrast, the small and large settlements were occupied year-round.