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Borysewicz and a colleague, Ed Burke, set up a clinic in a Los Angeles motel room and four of the seven athletes who had transfusions won medals. They were identified in the subsequent inquiry as having had transfusions. The emergence of EPO - In the late 1980s a recombinant drug created for people suffering from kidney failure became a substance abused by athletes seeking enhanced stamina and performance.

The drug is recombinant erythropoietin, known as EPO, which was developed by the Amgen company.

The following is an incomplete list of doping cases and recurring accusations of doping in professional cycling, where doping means "use of physiological substances or abnormal method to obtain an artificial increase of performance".

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The increased thickness of the blood (above 70% red blood cells) increases the risk of blood clotting which can block blood vessels causing a heart attack or stroke, especially in the middle of the night when the heart's rate is lowest.Doctors and blood specialists concluded that the drug could have been implicated in the deaths of as many as 18 European professional bicycle racers between 19.France passed its first anti-doping law in November 1964.Performance-enhancing drugs became illegal on 1 June 1965.This was included in the 1997 International Olympic Committee study on the Historical Evolution of Doping Phenomenon, and listed as the presumed first death due to doping during a competition.

The report did allow that in this period it was common practice, and not illegal.Systematic blood doping at the 1984 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles. The transfusions were to increase red blood cells in riders' blood. They received the blood of others with similar blood types. Steve Hegg, won a gold and a silver; Rebecca Twigg, Pat Mc Donough and Leonard Nitz won silver medals.The practice, instigated by national coach Eddie Borysewicz, was not against Olympic rules although Games medical guidelines discouraged it. The others were John Beckman, Mark Whitehead and Brent Emery.In 1963, the Council of Europe gave a definition of doping."Doping means to make use of physiological substances in immoderate quantity or abnormal method from healthy people whose only aim is to obtain an artificial increase of the performance during the competition".The Wiel's-Groene Leeuw affair – At the stage from Luchon to Carcassonne of the 1962 Tour de France, twelve riders fell ill and said 'bad fish' was the cause.