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What you see is that all the Indians carry this one distinctive mutation.

I find it unlikely that Malaysian Indians are Brahmins or North Indians, especially given that there is a non-trivial proportion of R1a1a in Tamil lower castes.

Therefore, I don’t think that Z93 is indigenous to South Asia, but is intrusive.

Since the discovery of R1a1-M458, this is the first scientific attempt to divide haplogroup R1a1-M198 into multiple SNP-based sub-haplogroups.

We have genotyped 217 R1a1-M198 samples from seven different population groups at M458, as well as the Z280 and Z93 SNPs recently identified from the “1000 Genomes Project”.

The implication being that it did not undergo the same expansion.

Dates of expansion (looking at the most recent common ancestor) for Z458 and Z93 are pegged to 7 and 10 thousand years before the present.

This makes sense, insofar as this is a very common variant in Eastern Europe. An interesting aspect is that in the Uzbek sample z93 has a high frequency. A Turkic component overlain atop an Iranian substrate.

The frequency of Z93 suggests to me that the Eastern Iranians share common ancestry with South Asians.

The two additional binary markers present an effective tool because now more than 98% of the samples analyzed assign to one of the three sub-haplogroups.

R1a1-M458 and R1a1-Z280 were typical for the Hungarian population groups, whereas R1a1-Z93 was typical for Malaysian Indians and the Hungarian Roma.

The detection of the Z93 paternal genetic imprint in the Hungarian Roma gene pool is consistent with South Asian ancestry and amends the view that H1a-M82 is their only discernible paternal lineage of Indian heritage.

The table to the left shows you an Indian population from Malaysia.

Malaysian Indians tend to be Tamils, from the south of the subcontinent.