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29-30) [16th-17th century France] "In 1560 Bruyerin avowed that he had 'more than once' seen '[half-cooked meats devoured so that blood almost flowed from the mouths of those who were eating. Eleanor Scully & Terence Scully [University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor] 1995 (p.

Medieval physicists--or physicians--told their contemporaries that cooking added either warmth and moisture or warmth and dryness to their foodstuff that was cooked: the cook chose his cooking method according to the inherent nature of the foodstuff and any need he had to correct this nature.

F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere. 86-87) [Medieval France] "Modern physicists tell us that cooking changes the chemical characteristics of a substance.

Boiling, on the other hand, offered a relatively constant heat, and boiling better suited beef because it cold dry nature needed to be both warmed and moistened.

The distance of both grill and spit from the flame could be regulated fairly well...

Generally, we like meat to e tender and juicy rather than tough and dry.

And when the cooking goes on for hgours, the fiber bundles fray away from each other, and even tough meat begins to fall apart...

A grill was convenient for flat meats, a spit for larger cuts.

Roasting, the application of direct heat at close proximity, was appropriate for a cold, moist meat such as pork because the open fire would warm and dry.

Late 19th century food scientists examined meat doneness, offering temperature/time recommendations according to type of meat, cut, and method of cooking. Meat thermometers (1930s) took the guesswork out of judging doneness. When today we ask for our steak well done, medium or rare, we are repeating a choice that the Renaissance writers revived from Hippocratic writings.

Like their 17th century predecessors, early 20th cooking texts warn against rare meat. Black and blue (aka "Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the 1970s. In 1626 Pierre Duchatel noted the physical reactions to be expected from meat prepared in each of the thre ways '(1)...well-Boiled meat is suitable to the digestion. (2)...those meats that have been medium boiled or medium roasted add moderately to vigor and digestion.

A7, Egges newly laid, are nutritiue to eat, And rosted Reere are easie to digest. Grilled hops and steaks may be just right at the center but dry elsewhere; long-braised pot roasts and stews are often dry throughout." ---On Food and Cooking (p.