Some other cameras have a separate GPS receiver that fits into the flash connector or hot shoe.
Recorded GPS data can also be added to any digital photograph on a computer, either by correlating the time stamps of the photographs with a GPS record from a hand-held GPS receiver or manually by using a map or mapping software.
For example, a whistleblower, journalist or political dissident relying on the protection of anonymity to allow them to report malfeasance by a corporate entity, criminal, or government may therefore find their safety compromised by this default data collection.
In addition, Exif also defines a Global Positioning System sub-IFD using the TIFF Private Tag 0x8825, holding location information, and an "Interoperability IFD" specified within the Exif sub-IFD, using the Exif tag 0x A005.
Formats specified in Exif standard are defined as folder structures that are based on Exif-JPEG and recording formats for memory.
The metadata tags defined in the Exif standard cover a broad spectrum: The Exif tag structure is borrowed from TIFF files.
On several image specific properties, there is a large overlap between the tags defined in the TIFF, Exif, TIFF/EP, and DCF standards.
For example, a photo taken with a GPS-enabled camera can reveal the exact location and time it was taken, and the unique ID number of the device - this is all done by default - often without the user's knowledge.
Many users may be unaware that their photos are tagged by default in this manner, or that specialist software may be required to remove the Exif tag before publishing.
IPTC was developed in the early 1990s by the International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) to expedite the international exchange of news among newspapers and news agencies.
The following table shows Exif data for a photo made with a typical digital camera.
Exif data are embedded within the image file itself.
While many recent image manipulation programs recognize and preserve Exif data when writing to a modified image, this is not the case for most older programs.
Notice that authorship and copyright information is generally not provided in the camera's output, so it must be filled in during later stages of processing.