and subsequently was invaded by Persians, Greeks, Celts, Romans, Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Slavs, Rus people, Crusaders, and Turks.
On January 4, 1878, Plovdiv was liberated from Ottoman rule by the Russian army.
and objects of everyday life on Nebet Tepe from as early as the Chalcolithicera , showing that at the end of the 4th millennium BCE, there was already an established settlement there which was continuously inhabited since then. Ten years after the Macedonian invasion, the Thracian kings started to exercise power again after the Odrysian Seuthes III had re-established their kingdom under Macedonian suzerainty as a result of a somehow successful revolt against Alexander the Great's rule resulting in a stalemate.
In 183 BCE, Philip V of Macedon conquered the city, but shortly after, the Thracians re-conquered it.
Ammianus Marcellinus wrote in the 4th century CE that the then city had been the old Eumolpias/Eumolpiada, ( of the other as it kept all consonants of the name Philip deva (city).
Although the two names sound similar, they may not share the same origin as Odrin and Adrianople do, and Pulpudeva may have predated the other names Plovdiv is located on the banks of the Maritsa river, southeast of the Bulgarian capital Sofia.
It remained within the borders of Bulgaria until July of the same year, when it became the capital of the autonomous Ottoman region of Eastern Rumelia.
In 1885, Plovdiv and Eastern Rumelia joined Bulgaria.Numerous nations have left their traces on the twelve-metre-thick (39-foot) cultural layers of the city.The earliest signs of habitation on the territory of Plovdiv date as far back as the 6th millennium BCE.In 72 BCE, the city was seized by the Roman general Marcus Lucullus but was soon restored to Thracian control.In 46 CE, the city was finally incorporated into the Roman Empire by emperor Claudius; Trimontium was an important crossroad for the Roman Empire and was called "the largest and most beautiful of all cities" by Lucian.The city is in the southern part of the Plain of Plovdiv, an alluvial plain that forms the western portion of the Upper Thracian Plain.