Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.
When there is a change in voltage in the terminal bouton, voltage-gated calcium channels embedded in the membranes of these boutons become activated.
These allow Ca2 ions to diffuse through these channels and bind with synaptic vesicles within the terminal boutons.
Neurons are cells that are specialized to receive, propagate, and transmit electrochemical impulses.
In the human brain alone, there are over eighty billion neurons.
As the rising phase reaches its peak, voltage-gated Na channels are inactivated whereas voltage-gated K channels are activated, resulting in a net outward movement of K ions, which repolarizes the membrane potential towards the resting membrane potential.
Repolarization of the membrane potential continues, resulting in an undershoot phase or absolute refractory period.
Moreover, the distinctions based on function between neurons and other cells such as cardiac and muscle cells are not helpful.
Thus, the fundamental difference between a neuron and a nonneuronal cell is a matter of degree.
Once bounded with Ca2 , the vesicles dock and fuse with the presynaptic membrane, and release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft by a process known as exocytosis.
The neurotransmitters then diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to postsynaptic receptors embedded on the postsynaptic membrane of another neuron.
After neurotransmitters are synthesized, they are packaged and stored in vesicles.