The control group included 365 age-matched men with a mean age of 62.23 ± 4.27 years (All patients taking part in the study were required to fulfill the following inclusion criteria:• Female,• Aged 50 or over,• Cessation of menstruation for 12 months,• Hormonal analysis compatible with menopause.Exclusion criteria included the following:• Local inflammation,• Focal infection and fibrosis of the major salivary glands,• Sjögren syndrome,• Mikulicz disease, • Dehydration,• Autoimmune diseases,• Post radiotherapy changes,• Chemotherapy.
Menopause in women is a physiological state that gives rise to adaptive changes at both systemic and oral level.Menopause literally means “without estrogen” and is, by definition, the time at which cyclic ovarian function, as manifested by menstruation, ceases.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Objectives: To know the nature, incidence and severity of oral manifestations occurring in postmenopausal women.Therefore, dentists need to refer postmenopausal women with oral symptoms to a gynaecologist for more careful examinations and medical interventions if necessary.
Key words: Menopause; postmenopause; xerostomia; pallor; oral changes.
Research community has paid limited attention in context to menopause, with information mostly based on clinical impressions or subjective, anecdotal case reports.
Various studies have suggested that menopause initiates a host of physiologic changes that include endocrinological alterations and atrophy of tissues lining the vagina and in the urinary tract.
Study design: Oral changes were observed in 365 postmenopausal women and 365 age matched male individuals attending the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology.
The patients were asked about complaints of dry mouth, taste and breath changes, mucosal and facial pain and were examined for oral changes such as ulceration, white and red lesions.
Postmenopausal patients showed significantly more oral changes than the control.